In our house, there are three places that we put trash: compost, recycling and the trash barrel. (as a last resort) Many things can be composted and recycled, so they do not have to be thrown out. Old food can be composted and used as a fertilizer for you to grow your own food. Almost all paper plastic and metal can be recycled, and since we have single stream recycling, they all go in the same barrel.
Finally, if all else fails and you simply have to throw it away, then do so. Make sure to dispose of electronics properly as chips and batteries contain corrosive ingredients which can hurt the environment substantially, if thrown into a landfill. Also consider donating items of clothing, furniture, and media to thrift shops or onto the free section of Craigslist. This will give others a chance to give your stuff a second lease on life!
As you can see, none of these suggestions will take that much additional time or effort, but I assure you the benefits will be worth the increased effort. Consider the implications of what you do before you do it, that's the motto here at Think Act Prosper.